Data Projects

Comparing GHG emissions from personal vehicles

Our analysis of GHG emissions from personal vehicles show that electric, hydrogen and biogas cars are best for climate in Norway and Sweden.

There has been a lot of debate around the actual climate benefits of low-emission vehicles, and different studies come to different conclusions. Regional variations can explain part of these differences. We wanted to see if we could conclude on this topic for Norway and Sweden, and if our findings would be robust across vehicle sizes. To find that out, we calculated emissions from manufacturing, using and scrapping cars in both countries, taking into account variables such as fuel/energy type and origin, vehicle size and weight class.

Cars come in all shapes and sizes, so to establish a representative analysis we collected data on as many vehicles as possible, from available online databases and websites. Our dataset includes more than 7800 cars running on fossil-fuel, 6 models with hydrogen, 63 hybrid, 28 with (bio)gas, and 67 electric models.

We have data on manufacturer and model, fuel type and consumption (both theoretical (NEDC) and real), on vehicle weight and class. For low-emission vehicles we also collected specific data on technology, battery size, weight, energy density and energy efficiency.

We analysed the data and established correlations between vehicles curb-weight, battery capacity, battery weight and energy/fuel efficiency. There are of course exceptions, but most vehicles follow the same trend. For example larger electric vehicles have heavier batteries, with higher energy capacity and use more energy per kilometer.

Correlation between vehicle weight and battery weight for 32 models of electric vehicles.

We categorised the vehicles and identified low-emission equivalents for most of the conventional fossil-fuel vehicles within the six weight-classes A to F. We then combined the data on fuel use and vehicle characteristics with our data on footprint for energy and materials, to calculate the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of each car technology.

Illustration of our findings for hydrogen cars in weight-class C in Norway

This approach takes into account the differences in GHG footprint for fuels in Norway and Sweden, and differences in use of the cars. The conclusion is similar for both countries: electric, hydrogen and biogas cars are best for climate in Norway and Sweden, provided that the hydrogen is from low-emissions sources (e.g. electrolysis or reforming with CCS).

Findings for weight-class C in Sweden, across technologies and fuel types

They worked on this project:


Calculating the life-cycle emissions of trucks

Comparing different fuels for trucks only makes sense when looking at the whole life cycle of the vehicle: from manufacturing to use and disposal.

For this project we developed a model to calculate the greenhouse gas footprint of a range of drivelines for trucks over the entire life cycle of the vehicles.

Our model makes it possible to compare the climate footprint of fuels and technologies for diesel, biodiesel, biogas, battery-electric and hydrogen trucks.

Results for biodiesel and electrical trucks

The results are country-specific, since local value-chains for fuels and energy influence the climate footprint.

They worked on this project:

Eric Rambech
Valentin Vandenbussche

Value-chain for hydrogen from wind energy

Smøla is an island community located in the Møre & Romsdal county, north-west in Norway. Through foresight, ambition and close collaboration between public and private entities, Smøla has established itself as a pioneer in onshore wind power, and the wind farm at Smøla was Europe’s largest when it was commissioned, and the largest in Norway until 2017.

The power cable between Smøla and the mainland has effectively reached its capacity, preventing additional capacity expansions of the turbines. A new export power cable from the island to shore is considered too expensive.

Click to access the report

Meanwhile, Smøla also aims to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from transport, of which the high speed ferry and buses constitute a significant share.

Endrava, in collaboration with Hyon and JC Gjerløw Consult, performed a techno-economic study of possible hydrogen value chain concepts, all based around the production of hydrogen from Smøla’s wind farm.

Our analysis shows that, with some reservations, hydrogen should be produced at Smøla. We base this analysis on three main reasons: From a demand perspective, significant and predictable consumers technically eligible for conversion to hydrogen exist at Smøla. From a supply perspective, the hydrogen value chain at Smøla can be made competitive. From an environmental and safety perspective, hydrogen from renewable energy is well positioned to replace diesel with corresponding strong emission reduction potential.

Location of the two sites for production and distribution of hydrogen, and the wind-park at Smøla.

They worked on this project:

Eric Rambech
Valentin Vandenbussche
JC Gjerløw Consult